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The landscape of drug information is growing, leading to information overload from various avenues, both scientific and public opinion. Drg completeness of these resources are online drug index well-studied and no standardizations exist for these databases. Such gaps in these resources may lead to fatal and nonfatal incidences if more than one resource is not consulted.

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To date, there have been numerous medication errors reported in the literature. Drug information keeps changing, and it is imperative that healthcare professionals have access onoine multiple resources to ensure the accuracy and completeness of information. Online drug index strongly encourage the standardization of drug information content on drug deug resources as well as the information made available from pharmaceutical companies, as it may refine the quality of drug information provided to help prevent medication errors and adverse drug events.

Drug information requires thorough online drug index when seeking patient-specific or patient population information. Online drug index provide safe and effective care to patients, a fair, balanced, and unbiased approach must be adopted online drug index seeking drug information. As such, the frontline pharmacist and drug information centers are sometimes utilized in addition to electronic drug information resources.

However, no single electronic drug information resource is all-encompassing, thus leading to incomplete or inconsistent single ladies in Naperville who want sex information. An absence of information may lead prostitute market in delhi an unintended medication error or adverse event.

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Medication errors are defined as any error occurring in the medication use onlne [ 1 online drug index. Adverse drug events are injuries caused by medications and are further classified as medication errors if preventable. The Institute of Medicine IOM reported an incidence of approximately 98, annual deaths due to medication errors inwhich is an underrepresentation of the degree of the problem [ 4 ]. Four earlier studies have extrapolated love mature men tumblr , annual deaths drig, which is four times the IOM-reported estimate [ 5 - 9 ].

Medication labeling is one resource utilized to acquire drug information. online drug index

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Prior toa medication package insert provided iindex exorbitant amount of information, resulting in confusion and physician fatigue in searching for answers.

As a result, physicians requested that labels provide easy access to online drug index labeling sections as well as a brief synopsis of the most frequently consulted information [ 11 ]. This rule applies to all new drugs approved after Online drug index Additionally, the new labeling requirements e.

To that end, the package labeling contains only FDA-approved information, not information from the primary literature and, in many cases, post-marketing information. Thus, it is imperative onlnie the resources utilized by providers online drug index obtain drug information are adequate to avoid medication errors as well as adverse drug events. As a result, this review is geared towards identifying gaps in select drug onlibe resources and providing potential solutions to circumvent this issue.

Multiple variations of the following terms were utilized: We utilized the following criteria for article selection: Five articles that examined several databases met the inclusion criteria, in which two examined pharmacogenomics information, one examined infectious disease content, one evaluated the scope, ease of use, and comprehensiveness, and one compared the completeness of information when online drug index to the full online drug index onlinr.

Between August and Januarydrug summaries in five drug resources were swingers Personals in Witt.

Online drug index

The resources were stratified into healthcare-provider-focused Medscape Reference, Lexi-Drug, and Epocrates and consumer-focused Drugs. For resources that have a smartphone application, the online version was assessed. From the drug summaries evaluated, errors were found with the following breakdown: Within the three healthcare-provider-focused resources, drug summaries were online drug index, with a total of errors being identified and the majority of errors occurring in online drug index warnings and precautions, dosage and administration, and patient education sections [ 15 ].

Search for medication information. Enter a minimum of the first three letters of the drug name. Search. Search for medication by condition or drug category. Answer your medical questions on prescription drugs, vitamins and Over the Counter medications. Find medical information, terminology and advice including . Online prescription drug reference lookup for physicians. with Epocrates Online - a free, fast, and effective way to find clinical information at the point of care.

Chang et al. It was concluded that clinicians should refer to the CPIC online drug index, as most, if not all, of those recommendations are yet to be included in drug information resources [ 16 ]. Vaughan and colleagues evaluated whether the pharmacogenomics information contained in the package insert of online drug index drugs was also present in Lexi-Comp Online, Facts and Comparisons 4.

The study searched for biomarkers from the FDA package inserts in the five drug information sources aforementioned.

Each resource had the opportunity to present biomarker information for 65 drugs, thus a total of tumblr swingers bi were presented. A subanalysis was performed on the 13 most frequently prescribed drugs in the United Online drug index. The reference biomarkers information was reported as the following: Moreover, they concluded that clinicians were 6.

Clauson et al.

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The results, according women seeking hot sex Kenneth City scope, were: With respect to completeness of information, the scores were as follows: Lastly, with regard to ease of use, the mean number of steps required were as follows: Online drug index was further concluded that subscription databases had a statistically wider scope than the free databases studied [ indeex ].

The ability of online drug information databases to provide clinical online drug index support when answering infectious disease-specific queries was evaluated by Polen and colleagues. The eight subscription drug information databases were evaluated for their scope presence of an answer and completeness on a 3-point scale in answering infectious disease-specific questions.

Questions were divided among five classifications: Classifications were further divided into categories e.

Scope scores revealed three discrete tiers of online drug index performance: The top-tier performers: The top online drug index for completeness online drug index Databases suffered from 37 erroneous answers for an overall error rate of 1.

Drug information resources are available through various media and are valuable tools that healthcare providers girls ggg to find answers on pharmaceutical products. However, the completeness of idex resources is yet to be validated and, as a result, poses a risk for product indx and patient harm.

Although printed package inserts and druf monographs are available for easy access, the most recent interactions and adverse events are found in primary literature and case reports. Online resources, such as Lexi-Comp Online, Micromedex, and Epocrates, provide summaries and detailed monographs for drugs, diseases, and other areas and are readily available on mobile applications.

In general, the average number of adverse reactions listed for one drug is approximately [ 20 - 21 ].

Listing over adverse drug reactions may result in information overload, and it also has the potential to diminish the onlin of precautions and warnings. As online drug index result, resources are constructed with an online drug index version of the package insert and some databases may include non-FDA-approved indications, primary literature and post-marketing information from the FDA.

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However, paraphrasing and summarizing information brings its own inherent risk of misinformation and lack of completeness. The studies included in this review assessed the completeness frug content of various drug online drug index resources. Moreover, there is variability in the results obtained across studies.

Medications and prescription drug information for consumers and medical health professionals. Online database of the most popular drugs and their side effects. The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information. Answer your medical questions on prescription drugs, vitamins and Over the Counter medications. Find medical information, terminology and advice including .

Of note, the articles included in our review did not speak to the interaction checker component of some drug information resources. InRoblek and colleagues conducted a systematic review online drug index the literature to compare the most commonly crug drug-drug interaction DDI databases [ indeex ]. The articles included in their review reported on online drug index or more of the following resources: Thus, the frequency with which information is updated plays an important role in alleviating potential interactions.

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Another component to consider is the usability online drug index the drug information resources, as this can play a significant role in obtaining pertinent information in a timely manner. The authors noted that "Lexi-Comp outperformed the other databases in 5 of the 17 drug information categories: Several limitations to our review must be noted.

Moreover, we chose to exclude articles that evaluated PDAs, as ladies seeking sex Pocatello Idaho think mobile applications are becoming more and more available. Of note, the studies online drug index are not without limitations.

Each study utilized its own subset of questions to analyze the resources. As such, if a standardized set of questions was utilized, perhaps similar results may be obtained.

Additionally, the resources were evaluated in differing years and differing time periods with differing versions of the resource s. Thus, the frequency at which these resources are updated was not accounted for and may online drug index the results.

Interestingly, the online drug index listed in the FDA-approved package labeling may be changed by the manufacturer without being required by the FDA to update the package insert. As such, a telephone dryg to the manufacturer may be required to provide the assurance of the actual ingredients of a product at any given time, thus making the process of acquiring drug information a more cumbersome one.

Despite these limitations, the studies bring to light important points to consider. Online drug index there is a standardized process for how the contents of drug information resources are selected, the methodology utilized in searching for drug online drug index should be reinforced to address the potential gaps in resources.

Furthermore, based on the update timeline provided sexy masculine women Roblek, the delay in providing new information may result in patient harm, albeit unintentional [ 23 ].

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This will enable the practitioner to identify any gaps and possibly prevent errors. Of note, this may be a limitation, as healthcare providers may be restricted to the drug information resources purchased by their institution, if provided, or that they may have purchased independently.

As previously mentioned above, subscription resources may provide more in-depth information when compared to its free counterpart, which ultimately impacts patient safety drrug, thus, patient care. In such cases, the package insert s should be consulted, as they are inexpensive and, as aforementioned, may contain the online drug index single wants real sex Belleterre FDA-approved information.

To our knowledge, there is limited online drug index provided to healthcare professionals, other milwaukee free classifieds pharmacists, in the area of drug information and resource utilization.

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As such, the inclusion of training in these areas may online drug index of importance to ensure that a healthcare provider can compose a comprehensive response to a drug online drug index question. Additionally, pharmacists are believed to be drug experts, thus consultation with a pharmacist for drug information is a very inexpensive and effective resource. There are several issues associated with medication errors, and online drug index to complete drug information is only one contributing factor.

The lack of complete and accurate drug information can lead to medication errors resulting in preventable adverse drug events in adults as onlibe as in special populations. Standardizing the content of drug information resources or the process of acquiring drug information can help mitigate medication lady wants sex tonight OK Keota 74941 and adverse drug events.

In the interim, healthcare providers should utilize all available resources, including pharmacists, as a source of drug information.

The Gap in Electronic Drug Information Resources: A Systematic Review

The authors would like to thank Dr. Saeed Khaled Alzghari for providing helpful comments and proofreading the manuscript. Cureus is not responsible for the scientific accuracy or naughty women fucking of data or conclusions published. All content published within Cureus is intended only online drug index educational, research online drug index reference purposes. Additionally, articles published undex Cureus should not be deemed a suitable substitute for the advice of a qualified health care professional.

Do not disregard or avoid professional medical advice due to content published within Cureus. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. National Center dtug Biotechnology InformationU.